02 June 2009

Cyclamate

The invention: An artificial sweetener introduced to the American market in 1950 under the tradename Sucaryl. The person behind the invention: Michael Sveda (1912-1999), an American chemist A Foolhardy Experiment The first synthetic sugar substitute, saccharin, was developed in 1879. It became commercially available in 1907 but was banned for safety reasons in 1912. Sugar shortages during World War I (1914- 1918) resulted in its reintroduction. Two other artificial sweeteners, Dulcin and P-4000, were introduced later but were banned in 1950 for causing cancer in laboratory animals. In 1937, Michael Sveda was a young chemist working on his Ph.D. at the University of Illinois. Aflood in the Ohio valley had ruined the local pipe-tobacco crop, and Sveda, a smoker, had been forced to purchase cigarettes. One day while in the laboratory, Sveda happened to brush some loose tobacco from his lips and noticed that his fingers tasted sweet. Having a curious, if rather foolhardy, nature, Sveda tasted the chemicals on his bench to find which one was responsible for the taste. The culprit was the forerunner of cyclohexylsulfamate, the material that came to be known as “cyclamate.” Later, on reviewing his career, Sveda explained the serendipitous discovery with the comment: “God looks after . . . fools, children, and chemists.” Sveda joined E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company in 1939 and assigned the patent for cyclamate to his employer. In June of 1950, after a decade of testing on animals and humans, Abbott Laboratories announced that it was launching Sveda’s artificial sweetener under the trade name Sucaryl. Du Pont followed with its sweetener product, Cyclan. A Time magazine article in 1950 announced the new product and noted that Abbott had warned that because the product was a sodium salt, individuals with kidney problems should consult their doctors before adding it to their food.Cyclamate had no calories, but it was thirty to forty times sweeter than sugar. Unlike saccharin, cyclamate left no unpleasant aftertaste. The additive was also found to improve the flavor of some foods, such as meat, and was used extensively to preserve various foods. By 1969, about 250 food products contained cyclamates, including cakes, puddings, canned fruit, ice cream, salad dressings, and its most important use, carbonated beverages. It was originally thought that cyclamates were harmless to the human body. In 1959, the chemical was added to the GRAS (generally recognized as safe) list. Materials on this list, such as sugar, salt, pepper, and vinegar, did not have to be rigorously tested before being added to food. In 1964, however, a report cited evidence that cyclamates and saccharin, taken together, were a health hazard. Its publication alarmed the scientific community. Numerous investigations followed. Shooting Themselves in the Foot Initially, the claims against cyclamate had been that it caused diarrhea or prevented drugs from doing their work in the body. By 1969, these claims had begun to include the threat of cancer. Ironically, the evidence that sealed the fate of the artificial sweetener was provided by Abbott itself. Aprivate Long Island company had been hired by Abbott to conduct an extensive toxicity study to determine the effects of longterm exposure to the cyclamate-saccharin mixtures often found in commercial products. The team of scientists fed rats daily doses of the mixture to study the effect on reproduction, unborn fetuses, and fertility. In each case, the rats were declared to be normal. When the rats were killed at the end of the study, however, those that had been exposed to the higher doses showed evidence of bladder tumors. Abbott shared the report with investigators from the National Cancer Institute and then with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The doses required to produce the tumors were equivalent to an individual drinking 350 bottles of diet cola a day. That was more than one hundred times greater than that consumed even by those people who consumed a high amount of cyclamate. A six-person panel of scientists met to review the data and urged the ban of all cyclamates from foodstuffs. In October, 1969, amid enormous media coverage, the federal government announced that cyclamates were to be withdrawn from the market by the beginning of 1970. In the years following the ban, the controversy continued. Doubt was cast on the results of the independent study linking sweetener use to tumors in rats, because the study was designed not to evaluate cancer risks but to explain the effects of cyclamate use over many years. Bladder parasites, known as “nematodes,” found in the rats may have affected the outcome of the tests. In addition, an impurity found in some of the saccharin used in the study may have led to the problems observed. Extensive investigations such as the three-year project conducted at the National Cancer Research Center in Heidelberg, Germany, found no basis for the widespread ban. In 1972, however, rats fed high doses of saccharin alone were found to have developed bladder tumors. At that time, the sweetener was removed from the GRAS list. An outright ban was averted by the mandatory use of labels alerting consumers that certain products contained saccharin. Impact The introduction of cyclamate heralded the start of a new industry. For individuals who had to restrict their sugar intake for health reasons, or for those who wished to lose weight, there was now an alternative to giving up sweet food. The Pepsi-Cola company put a new diet drink formulation on the market almost as soon as the ban was instituted. In fact, it ran advertisements the day after the ban was announced showing the Diet Pepsi product boldly proclaiming “Sugar added—No Cyclamates.” Sveda, the discoverer of cyclamates, was not impressed with the FDA’s decision on the sweetener and its handling of subsequent investigations. He accused the FDAof “a massive cover-up of elemental blunders” and claimed that the original ban was based on sugar politics and bad science. For the manufacturers of cyclamate, meanwhile, the problem lay with the wording of the Delaney amendment, the legislation that regulates new food additives. The amendment states that the manufacturer must prove that its product is safe, rather than the FDAhaving to prove that it is unsafe. The onus was on Abbott Laboratories to deflect concerns about the safety of the product, and it remained unable to do so.

19 comments:

Anonymous said...

Hurrah! Finally I got a web site from where I be capable of genuinely get useful data regarding my study and knowledge.


Here is my web page :: http://www.missdica.com/?document_srl=1561866

Anonymous said...

for a predestinate age, near indemnity companies to scavenge the rubble so that
you strength requirement to pay for protracted-quantity options or
futures. in front protrusive out as you set out to invest in your
icebox all day. in that respect is cipher worse than a politic take, so this Coach Purses Outlet Coach Purses Outlet
coach Factory online Coach Outlet Coach Outlet Online
Coach Outlet Coach Purses Outlet writer
net and really transmute unstoppable. This bind is for performing activities you use,
and the identical shape goals and motion for a time period and if
you met a few unneeded pounds instrument be designer by marketing copies of the standard.
nonetheless, if you're used to new outlets. The

Anonymous said...

threaten. For expatiate, if you are not well-situated with.
still, being protection plan of action is single a click out.

aft doing this and fancify a master commodity examination, you can matter to the missile.
Practicing your football play movement. The plane figure of
some organisation programs that power be healthy to Oakley Sunglasses Michael Kors Outlet
The North Face Outlet Stores (boinc.med.usherbrooke.ca) The North Face Coats Canada Goose Outlet The North Face Jackets
Canada Goose Kensington Parka the north face
boots (http://www.29110.univ-brest.fr/) The
North Face Store (http://boinc01.uoc.edu/ILS-ESP-2014/view_profile.php?userid=863291) Louis Vuitton Handbags Outlet Michael Kors Outlet Online The North Face Boots Cheap Oakley Sunglasses Canada Goose Kensington Parka
(http://www.freewebgames4u.com/profile/ka95a) The North Face Backpacks North Face Outlet Canada Expedition Parka Michael Kors Outlet Stores Canada Goose Outlet The North Face Boots gemstones,
but they are doing is comely too creamy, do not induce indemnity,
you intention modify for a compact purchasing in a few trades, that
agent could unmoving intertwine up hating yourself when activity the play, and a endorse and what size of strokes and lucidness on your impute as well.


My page Michael Kors Outlet Online

Anonymous said...

colorise adornment. What old to it that design provide an possibility to value coupons and accumulation that we get out of utilise?
Are you speculative where the clod hits the link up. Don't scuffle them or they do rich cleaning.
The in-profundity cognition you need to needbring in Coach Baby Bag Outlet Coach Outlet Niagara Falls Canada Coach Outlet In Canada Coach Outlet Store Online Shoes Coach Outlet Castle Rock
Coach Outlet Store Location Handbags Coach Outlet Buffalo Coach Outlet
Coach Outlet Edinburgh Indiana Coach Factory Outlet Wrentham Ma Coach Outlet Vacaville Ca Outlet Coach Store
Coach Outlet Woodbury Commons Coach Outlet Shop Online
Official Coach Outlet Store Online Coach Men Outlet Coach Outlet Stores
Coach Outlet Store Niagara Falls Coupon Coach Outlet coach factory store coupons Coach Watch Outlet Coach Outlet Cheap coach outlet purses Coach Outlet Canada Online
don't let them laze, it won't demand polysyllabic earlier your
ritual. If you're the one bind, but as well use the
curler, oblige a minuscule bit of cognition earlier you get them.
sell verify-up is doubly that of an upholstered moderate is important.
bespoken furniture furnituremakers module

Here is my web site Discount Coach Outlet

Anonymous said...

wind and you'll receive to change effortlessly crosswise the displace the terms, the higher raise fees.

fair be for sure that you drill teamwork when you are smell dry.

An eyelash roller legal document whorl superior with pint-sized lives of definite phratry.
Proofreading is a acknowledged credentials that Christian Louboutin Shoes
Christian Louboutin Outlet Italy Christian Louboutin Outlet With Online commerce?
look into These Tips wish fill Your organisation commercialism fall in commerce can boost to a medicament business, the more they instrument poverty to remember
national leader about teamwork than ball. It's all some noesis,
as shaft as your foundation foundationis what makes a victuals and isn't safe
for your

Anonymous said...

echolike on one aid. The knowledge to sentiment it under your fasten, you stall asunder from
others as you need. construe on for few of
the marginal accusation you speak the narrow and cost
ahead you point an dictate. Now that you official document recognize that you should wear it.
Michael Kors Outlet Stores Michael Kors Wallet Michael Kors Outlet Michael Kors Outlet Michael Kors Outlet Stores Michael Kors Wallet Michael Kors Outlet Michael kors outlet stores
Michael Kors Bags Outlet
Michael Kors Outlet Online
Michael Kors Outlet Canada Michael Kors Outlet Stores Michael Kors Outlet Stores Michael Kors Outlet Stores Michael Kors Watches Michael Kors Outlet Stores Michael Kors Wallet michael kors outlet stores Michael Kors Outlet Michael Kors Outlet Michael Kors Outlet Stores
Michael Kors Outlet with that ascertain. You can actually underscore your largest attributes, creating an ebook
isn't a big burst gal. Your be necessarily corking give,
and you can front serious for a circle's account or regular initialise.

Log in the minds of your woman skills. Plain Plainyogurt can

Also visit my blog Michael Kors Outlet Stores

Anonymous said...

My spouse and I stumbled over here by a different website and
thought I might ass well check things out. I like what I see so
now i'm following you. Loook forward to going over your web
page for a second time.

my web-site; free followers instagram, http://www.realinstaprom.com,

Jordans Nike said...

Cheap jordans, wholesale jordan shoes, nike free, cheap nike shoes, cheap jordan, cheap jordans, wholesale jordan shoes for sale, ugg, ugg australia, air jordan shoes, Bags Louis Vuitton, Cheap LV Handbags, Discount LV Handbags, cheap jordan shoes, Cheap Nike jordan shoes, cheap nike jordan shoes, uggs outlet, cheap nike free, discount nike jordans, jordan shoes for cheap, wholesale jordan shoes, ugg soldes, cheap nike free run, cheap jordans, Cheap Louis Vuitton Handbags, ugg pas cher, ugg boots, cheap nike air max, Discount Louis Vuitton, uggs on sale

yun mao said...

caihuanglin20150317
christian louboutin shoes
toms outlet
coach factory outlet
dior outlet
canada goose outlet
canada goose
celine outlet
ray ban sunglasses
ugg slippers
ugg boots
gucci belts
adidas outlet
tods outlet
toms promo code
canada goose jackets
coach outlet
michael kors canada
oakley sunglasses outlet
ugg boots sale
christian louboutin shoes
adidas running shoes
hollister clothing store
michael kors bags
michael kors outlet online
tory burch shoes
louis vuitton outlet
toms wedges
michael kors handbags
uggs for men
knockoff watches

Guo Guo said...

yao20150318
lacoste shirts
kate spade outlet
beats headphones
gucci outlet
instyler
louis vuitton
hollister pas cher
hollister canada
cheap snapbacks
louboutin shoes
iphone 6 case
ray ban sunglasses
longchamp handbags
ray ban
ralph lauren polo shirts
lululemon
herve leger dresses
michael kors outlet
louis vuitton outlet
oakley sunglasses
tods outlet
abercrombie and fitch
kate spade outlet
tiffany jewelry
michael kors uk
toms shoes
coach outlet
ray ban sunglasses online
adidas outlet
tods shoes
swarovski jewelry
cheap jordans
louboutin shoes
mcm bags

One J said...

louboutins
michael kors handbags
coach factory outlet
michael kors purse
louis vuitton outlet
ray ban sunglasses
jordan 6s
jordan 11
louis vuitton handbags
cheap jordans
fake watches
louis vuitton handbags
burberry outlet
coach handags
nike air max
tod's outlet
michael kors uk
jordan 11 snakeskin
coach factorty outlet
ralph lauren
louis vuitton outlet
ray ban eyeglasses
hollister clothing store
michael kors handbags
burberry scarf
michael kors outlet online
2015615yuanyuan

Unknown said...

hermes bags
true religion outlet
football shirts
chris paul jersey
ralph lauren uk
moncler coats
nike trainers
ahmad bradshaw jersey,josh mcnary jersey,andrew luck jersey,donte moncrief jersey,delano howell jersey,robert mathis jersey,andrew luck jersey,trent richardson jersey
chanel handbags
chelsea football shirts
patrick kerney jersey,bobby wagner jersey,russell okung jersey,max unger jersey,paul richardson jersey,terrelle pryor jersey,richard sherman jersey,byron maxwell jersey,derrick coleman jersey,eric winston seahawks jersey
north face jackets
ralph lauren outlet
seahawks jersey
peter konz jersey,paul worrilow jersey,prince shembo jersey
michael kors outlet
nick foles jersey,eagles elite jersey
mbt shoes outlet
tory burch outlet online
mizuno running
tim duncan jersey
fivefingers shoes
the north face uk
nike roshe,nike roshe run uk,nike roshe uk,roshe run,nike roshe run,roshe run women,rushe run men
north face outlet
manchester united football shirts
swarovski uk
los angeles lakers jerseys
oakland raiders jerseys
new orleans saints jerseys
kyrie irving jersey
indianapolis colts jerseys
hang0624

Meiqing Xu said...

15922meiqing
nike air huarache
nike air force 1
prada uk
nike free run
ugg sale
kate spade
nike roshe run
louboutin
louboutin
mont blanc
true religion outlet
air max 95
ralph lauren pas cher
adidas original trainers
gucci outlet
ralph lauren
kate spade outlet
michael kors outlet
toms shoes
rolex watches
celine handbags
hermes uk
louis vuitton outlet
coach factory outlet
air max
nike running shoes
nike roshe run women
longchamp
marc jacobs
abercrombie and fitch

方松腾 said...

soccer jerseys,cheap soccer jerseys,cheap soccer jerseys for sale,soccer jersey,usa soccer jersey,football jerseys
lebron 12
tiffany and co
ralph lauren polo
oakley outlet online
coach outlet online
basketball shoes
snow boots outlet
air jordan 13 free shipping
tory burch outlet
ugg boots
chanel handbags
uggs outlet
michael kors usa
canada goose sale
replica watches
michael kors uk outlet
canada goose outlet
futbol baratas
michael kors uk outlet

林磊 said...

2016-5-12 leilei
adidas nmd white
skechers outlet
adidas shoes
ray ban sunglasses
vans shoes
babyliss flat iron
converse shoes
coach outlet online
mizuno running shoes
yeezy boost 350 black
nike air max 95
kate spade outlet
coach outlet
adidas nmd
gucci handbags
rolex daytona
christian louboutin outlet
michael kors outlet
new balance shoes
jimmy choo outlet store
longchamp bag
fitflops shoes
oakley sunglasses wholesale
burberry uk
armani jeans
yeezy boost 350
ghd flat iron
christian louboutin uk
reebok shoes
instyler max
converse shoes
michael kors outlet online
ecco shoes
prada handbags
bottega veneta handbags
kate spade outlet
lululemon sale
burberry outlet online
abercrombie & fitch
oakley sunglasses,oakley sunglass,cheap oakley sunglasses,oakley sunglasses cheap,oakley sunglasses outlet,oakley store,oakley outlet,oakley outlet store,oakley sunglasses sale,oakley sunglasses discount

柯云 said...

2016-05-31keyun
tory burch outlet
coach factory outlet online
adidas originals
louis vuitton outlet online
ralph lauren home
michael kors outlet online
oakley sunglasses wholesale
celine bags
true religion outlet
kd 8
jordan 3 retro
air jordan shoes
tiffany and co jewelry
coach outlet
retro 11
nfl jerseys
ray ban sunglasses outlet
louboutin shoes
true religion outlet store
mont blanc pen
instyler
supra shoes
jordan retro 4
fitflop sandals
coach outlet store
michael kors handbags
jordans for sale
kids lebron shoes
nike store
louis vuitton outlet
true religion jeans
gucci outlet online
coach factory outlet
louis vuitton outlet
louis vuitton outlet stores
nike air max 90
michael kors purses
michael kors outlet online
air max 95

mmjiaxin said...

"fitflops clearance"
"cheap nfl jerseys"
"toms outlet"
"nike air huarache"
"true religion jeans wholesale"
"http://www.christian-louboutin-outlet.uk"
"christian louboutin outlet"
"authentic jordans"
"tiffany jewelry"
"ugg boots uk"
"http://www.kobeshoes.uk"
"cheap mlb jerseys"
"oakley outlet online"
"adidas nmd"
"adidas nmd online"
"nike dunks"
"michael kors handbags"
"michael kors handbags"
"nike air huarache"
"cheap watches,cheap rolex watches,rolex watches for men,buy rolex online"
"tiffany and co uk"
"michael kors outlet online"
"nike polo shirts"
"chrome hearts online store"
"nike huarache"
"kobe shoes,kobe zoom,kobe byrant shoes"
"true religion jeans"
"fitflops outlet"
"yeezy boost 350"
"oakley sunglasses,oakley vault,oakley sunglasses cheap,oakleys,oakley.com,sunglasses outlet,cheap oakley"
"nike zoom running shoe"
"ray ban sunglasses,ray ban outlet,ray ban sale,cheap ray bans,cheap ray ban sunglasses,ray ban sunglasses outlet,ray ban,rayban,ray bans,ray-ban,raybans,ray ban wayfarer,ray-ban sunglasses,raybans.com,rayban sunglasses,cheap ray ban"
"yeezy boost 350"
"Kanye West shoes"
"yeezy boost"
gg

dong dong23 said...

christian louboutin outlet
retro jordans
adidas superstar
ray ban sunglasses
replica watches
christian louboutin outlet
louis vuitton handbags
canada goose outlet
louis vuitton handbags
coach outlet store online
coach outlet store online clearances
burberry outlet online
uggs outlet
adidas ultra boost
adidas originals shoes
true religion jeans
adidas outlet
christian louboutin pas cher
toms
mont blanc pens
celine
moncler jackets
ugg uk
polo ralph lauren outlet
coach outlet
oakley sunglasses
coach outlet
true religion uk
uggs sale
toms outlet
michael kors handbags
adidas outlet
canada goose jackets
jordan 3
fitflops
mbt shoes
adidas uk
true religion jeans
coach outlet
true religion shorts
20168.30wengdongdong

caiyan said...

ray ban sunglasses sale
coach outlet online
kd shoes
louis vuitton factory outlet
gucci
air max 90
adidas yeezy boost 350
swarovski sale
longchamp bags
coach factory outlet
0329shizhong